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general Nutrition

Nutrition for your eyes

Balanced nutrition is very important for keeping your body healthy. Good nutrition helps our body to grow, repair wear and tear, protect against infection and to function properly. As part of an overall healthy diet, several key nutrients appear to be particularly important to preserving sight as we get older.
Eating a balanced diet is important for maintaining eye health. Researchers have found that certain eye diseases such as cataracts, glaucoma, dry eye syndrome or macular degeneration may be slowed or prevented altogether by certain vitamins and minerals,
Relationship between nutrients and eye function
“Vision depends on tiny capillaries that supply the retina and other parts of the eye with nutrients and oxygen,” says Monique Roy, MD, a professor at the New Jersey Medical School’s Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science. Keeping those arteries healthy is essential by the supply of proper nutrition in balance.
Important nutrients that supports keeping eyes healthy.

  • Vitamin A & beta carotene
    Vitamin A is a key factor in eye health and in the health of the retina of the eye. Vitamin A deficiency can cause the condition xerophthalmia, which is a form of childhood blindness, according to the Royal National Institute of Blind People. Vitamin A can also reduce the risk of dry eye syndrome, according to All About Vision. This vitamin may also play a role in preventing the development of cataracts. Good food sources of this vitamin include beef liver, eggs and milk.
    According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology,beta-carotene(precursor of vit.A) protect eyes against night-blindness and dry eye syndrome. “It also helps the eyes to adjust to low levels of light at night,” explains Sarah Coulson, a registered dietitian with Pivot Sport Medicine and Orthopaedics in Toronto
    Dietary sources of this antioxidant include carrots, sweet potatoes, yam etc.
    Lutein and Zeaxanthin
    Two other nutrients — lutein and zeaxanthin — are also linked to lower risk of macular degeneration and cataracts. A Tufts University study of 1,802 women 50 to 79 years old found that those who consumed the most lutein and zeaxanthin in their diets were 23% less likely to develop cataracts than those who consumed the least. Rich sources of these two compounds include yellow pepper, spinach, turnip greens, lettuce, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts.
    Omega-3 Fatty Acid
    The newest nutrient linked to better vision with age is omega-3 fatty acid, which is found predominantly in fish oil. In a study of 2,520 people, researchers at Johns Hopkins University reported that people who consumed fish high in omega-3s fatty acids often were significantly less likely to have advanced age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3s may also protect against cataracts, according to findings by researchers at the Clinical University of Navarra in Spain.
  • Selenium
    Selenium, in combination with antioxidants like vitamins A and C, may work to decrease the risk of macular degeneration, according to All About Vision. Shrimp, crab, Brazil nuts and brown rice are good sources of this mineral.
  • Vitamin C
    Vitamin C may slow down the progression of macular degeneration when taken in combination with other antioxidants. Vitamin C may also lower the risk of cataracts and may impact the development of glaucoma, according to All About Vision. Food sources of vitamin C include strawberries, lime,amla, guava, oranges , papaya, tomatoes and cantaloupe.
  • Vitamin E
    “What vitamin E does is protect the eyes from free-radical damage,” says Coulson, meaning that it protects cells in the body from oxidation, which can cause deterioration and disease. Vitamin E may also decrease the progression of cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. wheat germ is good source of this vitamin.Almonds, sunflower seeds and hazelnuts are also good sources of vitamin E.
  • Zinc
    Zinc may help decrease the risk of night blindness and the development of macular degeneration. According to Lighthouse International, zinc may also slow down the progression of cataracts. Zinc helps release vitamin A from the liver so that it can be used in eye tissues, while a zinc deficiency can cause deterioration of the macula, at the centre of the retina.Zinc can be obtained from dark meat turkey, oysters and beef. From chickpeas and kidney beans, to mung,Beans and lentils,eating beans and other legumes is an easy way to add zinc to your diet.
  • What about supplements?
    While it may be tempting to add supplements to your diet to boost your eye health. when it comes to getting the right nutrients, whole foods are the way to go. At the end of the day, a diet that is rich in fruit, vegetables, low fat milk & its products, whole grains, fish and lean meats will benefit your body in all sorts of ways. Food provides nutrients in the right amounts taken in balanced amounts with even distribution. Take them just as nature made, because they are far more effective. If supplements are really in need take according to advice of your doctor because self prescription is dangerous as some of the nutrients in excess can lead to serious health issue.









PhD. Seminar, FSN 681 (0+1)


Name: Deepa, S. Patil                                                                                

ID.No: PALB 3047                                                                                       


Food-Originating ACE inhibitors in hypertension

Prevention and management of hypertension are the major public health challenges worldwide. Data reported by the WHO have shown that by 2020 CVD will become the leading cause of death and disability. Apart from medical treatment of hypertension, diet may be also considered as a factor reducing the risk of CVD (Reddy and Katan 2004).

In recent years, it has been recognized that many dietary constituents may contribute to human cardiovascular health. ACE inhibitors derived from food proteins are the best known group of bioactive peptides (Iwaniak and Minkiewicz 2008). Thus, the ability of some molecules to inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) was considered to be a useful therapeutic approach to treat hypertension (Lin et al., 2012).

The long-term blood pressure–lowering effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus helveticus LBK-16H in hypertensive subjects was studied by Seppo et al. (2003) and suggested that L. helveticus LBK-16H fermented milk containing bioactive peptides in normal daily use has a blood pressure– lowering effect in hypertensive subjects.

Lee et al., (2004) conducted a study on isolation and characterization of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from the edible mushroom Tricholoma giganteum and concluded that ACE  inhibitor from T. giganteum showed a clear antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), at a dosage of 1mg/kg.

According to Persson et al., (2010), oral intakes of a single dose of Rooibos tea significantly inhibit ACE activity after 30 and after 60 min. A significant inhibition of ACE activity was seen with green tea for the ACE II genotype 30 min after intake of the tea and for the ACE ID genotype 60 min after intake hence the results suggest that green tea and Rooibos tea may have cardiovascular effects through inhibition of ACE activity.

Jabeen et al. (2012) investigated the blood pressure lowering, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and diuretic activities of the aqueous-methanolic crude extract of dried fruits of P. domestica (Pd.Cr.) in rats. Results showed that extract was found to have serum ACE inhibitor activity, with IC50 value of 1.102 mg/ml and did not increase urine output in rats.

Rodriguez-Figuerora et al., (2013) elucidated on hypotensive and heart lowering effect in rats receiving milk fermented by specific Lactococcus lactis strains and results demonstrated that milk fermented by L. laciis presented an important systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HR lowering effect and has potential benefits in preventing and treatment of hypertension.

Chaudhary et al., (2013) evaluated angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and antioxidant activity of the hydro alcoholic extracts of Piper Longum L.fruits, its fractions and isolated piperine. Though piperine showed ACE inhibition and scavenging of DPPH radical but not significant compared to the ethyl acetate fraction. P. longum can be explored as a functional food as antihypertensive.

Various ACE inhibitory antihypertensive peptides have been characterized from common food sources. They provide advantageous cardiovascular health by inhibiting ACE activity, reducing free radical formation, including vasorelaxation and  lowering of blood pressure. The idea of inclusion of these bioactive products as functional food ingredients or nutraceuticals is particularly attractive since they have chronic rather than acute effect on health, thus they are safe and efficient for preventing hypertension.






























“ Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function”. It is a review….


In the present study we evaluate the blood pressure-lowering effect of the following products: the hydrolysate obtained from egg white (EW) by enzymatic


treatment with pepsin (HEW), the peptide fraction of HEW with molecular mass lower than 3000 Da (HEW , 3000 Da), and three peptide sequences iso-

lated from HEW , 3000 Da (Tyr-Ala-Glu-Glu-Arg-Tyr-Pro-Ile-Leu: YAEERYPIL); (Arg-Ala-Asp-His-Pro-Phe-Leu: RADHPFL); and (Ile-Val-Phe (IVF)).


These peptides, and also HEW and HEW , 3000 Da, had been characterized previously in vitro as potent inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme


(ACE). EW and the products mentioned earlier were orally administered by gastric intubation, to 17–20-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats


(SHR) and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats. We measured the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the rats


by the tail cuff method before administration and also 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-administration. Distilled water served as negative control, and we used cap-

topril (50 mg/kg) as positive control to carry out similar experiments with a known ACE inhibitor. HEW, HEW , 3000 Da and the three peptide sequences


decreased SBP and DBP in SHR but they did not modify these variables in WKY rats. The peptide sequences YAEERYPIL, RADHPFL and IVF showed a


potency to decrease blood pressure greater than HEW or HEW , 3000 Da. The results obtained suggest that the studied products could be used as a func-

tional food with potential therapeutic benefit in the prevention and treatment of hypertension.




                                                                    Alzheimer’s disease and Diet                    

Meaning of Alzheimer’s Disease :  progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain. It is the commonest cause of premature senility.

Is there any particular diet to be followed for this condition?

While there is no special diet required for people with Alzheimer’s disease — — eating a well-balanced, nutritious diet is extremely beneficial.

Nutritional Tips;

The basic nutrition tips below can help boost the person with AD health and your health as a caregiver, too.

  • Provide a balanced diet with a variety of foods. 
    Offer vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and lean protein foods like skin out chicken, low fat panner, grilled fish, or Tofu.
  • Limit foods with high saturated fat and cholesterol.
    Some fat is essential for health — but not all fats are equal. Go light on fats that are bad for heart health, such as butter, solid shortening, lard and fatty cuts of meats.
  • Cut down on refined sugars.
    Often found in processed foods, refined sugars contain calories but lack vitamins, minerals and fibre. You can take a sweet tooth with healthier options like fruit or juice-sweetened baked goods. But note that in the later-stages of Alzheimer’s, if loss of appetite is a problem, adding sugar to foods may encourage eating.
  • Limit foods with high sodium and use less salt.
    Most people consume too much sodium, which affects blood pressure. Cut down by using spices or herbs to season food as an alternative.

 Some research facts;

  •  Eating a Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes fruits, vegetables, legumes and healthy fats, and increasing physical activity levels can reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, a new study shows.
  • The study suggests that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduction in risk for AD and slower cognitive decline.

Õ   Are you concerned about getting Alzheimer’s ?  The walnut that resembles a brain may be the answer to keeping Alzheimer’s disease at                    bay. The latest research suggests that eating 1/4 cup of walnuts a day may help prevent  this disease.





 Healthy foods for summer





              Summer and health concerns

The summer is here and so is heat, sweat, tanning, perpetual thirst and a lack of appetite! Health wise, this season brings with a lot of gastrointestinal problems like vomiting, diarrhoea, food poisoning and others like heat stroke, dehydration and dizziness.

So what are the best foods to combat these problems?

Beverages - Water, lime juice , (lemon provides potassium to the body), coconut water (one of the richest sources of potassium), Tomato juice,( which is the good source of lycopene protects your skin from sun burns)  buttermilk, (made of curd, easy to digest), Mango juice (provides antioxidants, protects against sun stroke) etc. One thing to note here ,do not add too much of sugar for your juices since it can add extra calories to your day’s diet.

Fruits with high water content; watermelon and musk melon (high water content), litchi (good source of vitamins and minerals), blackberry, Raspberry ,strawberry, grapes, cantaloupe, peaches, pineapple, plums, oranges etc.. Fruits can naturally hydrate your body and provides important antioxidants which are essential to take care of your body needs during summer

Vegetables –  On top of the vegetables list are cucumber and lettuce, consisting of 96 percent water. Zucchini, radish and celery are comprised of 95 percent water. Ninety-four percent of tomato’s weight is water, and green cabbage is 93 percent water. Vegetables that contain 92 percent water include cauliflower, eggplant, red cabbage, peppers and spinach. Broccoli is 91 percent water by weight. Additional healthy hydrating foods include carrots with 87 percent water and green peas and white potatoes with 79 percent water.

Foods that needs to be aware of!

Foods like ice creams, chilled cold drinks, chilled beer, usually consumed in summer , which should be avoided, as extremely cold items cool you temporarily. Body has a feedback mechanism to maintain an ideal body temperature. If any food with extreme cold consumed , the blood vessels constrict  due to cold temperature , this may lead to health issues. Therefore, it is advisable to have food products that are cold but not chilled.

Finally, eat light, drink a lot of water and maintain good hygiene to remain healthy in this summer.


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