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Obesity in children

Over the past three decades the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased substantially. Globally, an estimated 170 million children (aged < 18 years) are estimated to be overweight. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity has serious health consequences.

Childhood obesity – facts


    • Increasing at an alarming rate
    • 22% prevalence (5- 19yr) in India (source;http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22240243)
    • Obese children grow into obese adults
    • Health complications start at a higher BMI

What factors contribute to obesity?


  • Genetics
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Environment (Media, family, etc)

Health concern

Physical Health

Emotional Health

  • High BP & cholesterol
  • Social isolation
  • Diabetes
  • Poor self esteem
  • Bone and joint problem
  • Poor social skill
  • Respiratory problems
  • Stress anxiety
  • Sleep disorders
  • Depression
  • Gastrointestinal problems
  • Behavioral problem

Scientific reasons supporting development of obesity in children

  • Socio-economic deprivation. 11hrs/week TV/video watching.
  • Low participation in school sports
  • Few interests involving active play
  • 2hrs/day travelling by vehicles
  • Few siblings.

What should be done to prevent childhood obesity?

Comprehensive approach in diet pattern , physical activity, and behavioral changes both at home and school is very important in preventing childhood obesity.

  • Avoid eating in the absence of hunger.
  • Eating high calorie foods such as pizzas, fried foods, foods with lot of sugar and ghee, bakery foods, fried chicken and fish etc needs to be limited.
  • Watching T.V and snacking increases calorie intake so limit watching TV
  • Do not discourage or bully the child who is attempting for healthy eating pattern and learning for behavioral changes

Few tips to develop healthy food habits


  • Eat nutrient dense foods
  • Don’t eat empty calorie foods
  • Eat all the meals in time
  • Don’t skip any meal ,though your wt. is slightly high
  • At least eat 150gm of fruits
  • Avoid canned fruits and vegetables.
  • 250gm vegetables in a day
  • Don’t indulge in the same food group every day.
  • Select nuts and dry fruits as your snacks
  • Aware of high calorie foods, check nutritional information on food labels.avoid too many bakery items.
  • Start the day with healthy breakfast such as idli, dosa, parathas, egg omlette, kichidi, cornflakes withfruits&milk etc
  • Avoid bakery items, fried foods, pastries etc. for breakfast.
  • Your beverages should be milk, fresh fruit juices, tender coconut water or plain water
  • Say no to sodas, sugary corbonated juices , and other colouring juices
  • Select food from all the food groups. Your food choice should have variety

Ways to promote physical activity


    • Do not withhold games as punishment
    • Do not discourage children when they are playing in sunlight
    • Have short physical activity breaks
    • Encourage dance, martial arts, yoga
    • Encourage walking/cycling if possible
    • Teach some lessons in open air (at schools if possible)

Conclusion :

Healthy eating & physical activity can make a difference with family & community support for children in the category of overweight and obesity.Visit your family doctors and check children’s height and weight periodically.


 

Women related articles

              Importance of nutrition in pregnancy

At no other time in woman’s life is nutrition so important than before, during and after pregnancy. Nutrition during pregnancy has a significant impact on the health of the mother and the growth and development of the baby. It is now widely accepted that the risks of a number of chronic diseases in adulthood such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease may have their origins before birth.

1st Trimester                                      


  • Fine tune your diet for
    getting all nutrients
  • Well balanced diet
    rich in whole grains,
    fruits, fish, lean poultry,
    legumes and low fat.
  • Dairy products
    Vital nutrients –
    protein, folic acid, iron,
    zinc

2nd Trimester

  • Increase food intake gradually to
    meet increased needs
  • Focus on nutrient dense foods
  • Include foods rich in fiber
    Add plenty of nourishing fluids
  • Adequate intake of foods rich in
    iron, DHA, choline, fruits, vegetables
    specially green leafy vegetables
    Vital nutrients – All B vitamins and
    vitamin A, C, D, calcium, FOS, iron,
    protein

3rd Trimester

  • You need to eat more
    and drink more fluids
  • Vital nutrients –
    essential fatty acids,
    choline etc

Iron – a key nutrient

  • Increased formation of blood
  • Iron stores for baby
  • Iron deficiency can lead to
  • Increased risk of preterm delivery
  • Low birth weight
  • Poor maternal immune system
  • Lower pregnancy weight gain
  • Key food sources
  • Increase intake of iron rich foods (red meat,
    liver, jaggery,dry dates)
  • Include vitamin C rich foods like citrus fruits, amla,guava, tomatoes etc. for better absorption of iron
    Avoid tea or coffee after food

Brain Development

  • 70% of the baby’s brain growth occurs during pregnancy
    4 Key nutrients and their food sources DHA
    Crucial for brain and eye development
    Deep sea oily fishes, ,walnuts,flax seeds

CHOLINE

  • Critical role in development of memory centre
    Milk, liver, eggs and peanuts

FOLIC ACID

  • Prevents Neural Tube Defects
    Dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, eggs, and pulses

IODINE

  • Improves brain development
    Seafood, iodised salt

Growth

  • The growing baby places a high demand onmothers’ stores of energy, protein and
    micronutrients
    Key nutrients and their food sources

PROTEIN

  • Supports baby’s growth
    Milk, Egg, Meat, Cheese, Soy, Pulses, Beans

FATS & CARBOHYDRATES

  • Provide extra ene– Cereals(Rice, Roti), Butter

CALCIUM & VITAMIN D

  • Critical for bone development
    Milk & milk products, green vegetables
    Fish oils, egg yolk and fortified milk,
    synthesized by body in sunlight

Myths & Facts

Myths Facts
Now that you are pregnant, you should be eatingfor two (or twice as much!). It is true that your nutrient needs increase, butenergy requirements only increase about 350 caloriesper day for the second and third trimester of pregnancy
Gaining less weight during pregnancy willmake delivery easier Mothers who do not gain enough weightduring pregnancy place their babies at risk for different complications such as premature birth.
If you gain the right amount of weight duringpregnancy, none of it will be fat gain A healthy pregnancy includes fat storage.Your body uses this excess fat as energy during labour and breastfeeding
Pregnant women only crave the foods theirbodies need Pregnant women can crave foods of any type. Cravings should not be the sole indicator of nutritional needs

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